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May 1864

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Throughout this month, the 91st was in the First Brigade, First Division, Fifth Army Corps, of the Army of the Potomac, engaged in the Rapidan Campaign, including the Battles of the Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania Court House, North Anna River, Pamunkey River, and Totopotomy. [Dyer, v.3 p.1604]

1 Brigade (with division) broke camp near Rappahannock Station, Virginia at sunrise, and crossed the Rappahannock at Rappahannock Station. The brigade camped near Brandy Station. [1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; 1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary]
Matthew McIlvaney (K) transferred to VRC
William Stackhouse (K) detailed as clerk at reg't hq
[order]
2 regiment was camped in the field near Bealton, VA
Charles Leipold (F&S) present sick
Benjamin Redheffer (A) was killed accidentally when he was pulled out of a railroad car when his feet, which were dangling out of the car, hit a bridge
William Stetler (A) reported transferred to VRC
James Teirney (C), William Beal (C), John Connelly (C), and either William Hoover or William T Hooven/r returned to duty from Brigade HQ
Thomas Morris (C) reported gained from desertion
Henry Sinex (D) detailed for duty at brigade hq
John A Henry (E) died in Philadelphia PA of gastritis
"Pri McCartney" (E)--probably Dennis McCarty, though other possibilities are Michael McCartney and William McCartney--gained from desertion and in arrest at Fort Mifflin
transferred to US Navy: John Braisted (G), George Lloyd (G), Daniel Mattix (C), and William Mooney (F)
William Andrews (H) detailed as guard at brigade hq
Elisha Butt (I) returned from duty at brigade hq
John Boyer (K) sick in quarters
4 people applied for free military school
Sinex reported that John Young left on sick leave on 11 Dec 62 and did not return when his leave was done; William Kier was the only surgeon present
Theodore Hope and Francis Gregory left Alexandria Virginia to rejoin the regiment
Peter Abbott (62nd PA) absent from his co.
[letters]
[for more information, see consolidated morning report]
3 regiment was camped near Brandy Station, VA
About 11 p.m. left Culpepper for Germanna Ford on the Rapidan.
John Coster (A) on daily duty
Edward Agnew mustered in co D (perhaps 3 Mar)
Theodore Hope and Francis Gregory arrived at Culpepper
[1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Bates, p.190; Welch, p.505; Walter]
[for more information, see consolidated morning report]
4 Rapidan Campaign began. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604] about 8.30 (or 6?) am, crossed Rapidan at Germanna Ford (with the division). marched to near Wilderness Tavern. halted at 1.30 pm. formed line of battle, posted pickets, and bivouacked for the night
Theodore Hope and Francis Gregory left Culpepper, arrived at Brandy Station, could not learn where the regiment was, and were ordered to stay with the 5th corps wagon train until they found the regiment (which they did on the 9th)
Thomas McGovern (F) wounded
Joel Weeks (B) discharged on surgeon's certificate
[Bates, p.190; Walter; 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; 1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
5 Rapidan Campaign continued. Battles of the Wilderness began.
am. marched to near Parker's Store. rested in open woods on the right of the road to Mine Run, on high ground, for several hours. heard muskets between 10 and 11, which soon came nearer.began to build breastworks, hearing heavy firing in the woods. At noon, the brigade was ordered to attack. The regiment formed line of battle on the right of the brigade. Advanced in two lines, parallel with the road, through thick underbrush to the edge of a cleared field. The 91st was at the extreme right of the line. The brigade charged across the field, but was driven back. Reformed under the brow of a hill, and remained there, in the old position, for the rest of the day. The musketry fire to the south of them was said to be the heaviest of the war (Walter). silence returned by the end of the day. 91st ordered to fall in about 9.00; moved towards the woods that had been the site of the heaviest firing. Company A was separated from the rest, and taken to a small breastwork. the most experienced veterans were taken a little further to act as guards, and Walter remained with the rest in the trench. Although they were supposed to remain alert, they were so exhausted that they all fell asleep. Perhaps at 2.30 they were awakened and returned to the regiment, where they slept for several hours. Union artillery attacked the Confederates when they, having discovered the 91st was gone, searched for plunder. [Bates, p.190; 1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Welch, p.505]
Lt Col Joseph H Sinex was in command of the regiment (organization table).
Augustine Montgomery was captured
John Anorson (C) mia (later died in Andersonville)
John Anorson (C) probably captured (allegedly 5 May 1863)
William Kushner (D) wounded
William Lutz (D) died of sunstroke, in the field, in VA (perhaps 6th, 7th, or 8th)
William McCoy (H) wounded
Edward Wells (118th PA) was captured
Robert Recraft (118th PA) wounded
William Whitlock (D) deserted (possibly 8th)
Frank Pierce discharged (probably from VRC)
Jacob Hause (118th PA) wounded
Jacob B Steele (62nd PA) captured
6 Rapidan Campaign continued. Battles of the Wilderness continued.
Moved to protect pioneers throwing up breastworks. 3 p.m.: Relieved a division of Pennsylvania Reserves on the left of the road. Posted skirmishers near the hill on which the Confederates were entrenched. Skirmished with the rebels through the night.
Johnson Agnew wounded
Michael Gallagher (D) wounded
William Lutz (D) died of sunstroke, in the field (perhaps 5th, 7th, or 8th)
Newton Wallace (27th Mass) wounded
[Bates, pp.190-191; Welch, p.505; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; 1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
John McGeehan (D) wounded while on picket duty, during the night; sent to division hospital
7 Rapidan Campaign continued. Battles of the Wilderness continued. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary] 1 am. Ordered to fall back as quickly and quietly as possible to a prepared line of works. The Confederates followed, and charged at day-break, but were driven back. Several more Confederate attacks were also repulsed.
8 am. Relieved 15th Artillery. Perhaps that's the heavy artillery unit Walter refers to, as having obviously been in forts for years and not at the front.
9 [or 11] pm (Walter says near sundown). Withdrawn and moved through a forest on the plank road. Passed cavalry at Todd's Corner.
about midnight. Horses at the head of the column became frightened by skirmishers' firing and rushed through the column, knocking down many men. It delayed the march for only minutes, but Color Sergeant Robert Chism was trampled, had to have one of his legs amputed, and died.
Made forced march all night. Reached Laurel Hill. [Bates, p.191; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Walter
William Cooper (K) detailed for duty in division hospital; remained until all wounded removed
John McGeehan (D) died of wounds suffered on 6th
William Lutz (D) died of sunstroke, in the field, in VA (perhaps 6th, 5th, or 8th)
Alfred Ratzell (118th PA) wounded
8 Rapidan Campaign continued. Laurel Hill. Spottsylvania Court House.
7 am. Regiment arrived at Todd's Tavern. Thrown into line, relieving cavalry. Advanced to Laurel Hill and opened fire, under heavy shelling. Heard rifles firing about 1/2 mile ahead. Then formed line of battle in a large cleared space, with the 91st on the extreme right. charged enemy at 10 am. Brigade repulsed, leaving the regiment holding its position. New line formed under command of Colonel Hofmann, 56th PA Vet Vol., 2nd Brig., 4th Div. Regiment joined in 2nd charge, reached burnt house, and held ground. Ordered to retire about 200 yards, to a ridge, and build breast-works. Left skirmishers on the hill.
Casualties include: [Bates, p.191; Welch, p.505; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; 1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Walter]
William Whitlock (D) deserted (possibly 5th)
William Lutz (D) died of sunstroke, in the field, in VA (perhaps 6th, 7th, or 5th)
Charles Leipold (F&S) absent sick
Henry Seher, 118th PA, captured at Wilderness VA
9 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
Strengthened earthworks. The brigade stayed in rifle pits and on picket duty, exposed to shells and sharpshooters. The regiment was quiet. In the afternoon they sent pickets to the front, holding a burnt house. There was sharp firing on the line that night. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; Bates, p.191; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Walter]
Theodore Hope and Francis Gregory returned to the regiment; Theodore Hope (E) arrested (special order 53, HQ 91st, 28 June 1864); Francis Gregory (A) arrested [see letter, F Gregory to Tayman, 20 Jun 64, for explanation of F Gregory's and Hope's arrests]
William Harvey, co D, wounded, Wilderness VA
Edwin Hause (F) promoted to sgt (possibly 9 March)
Andrew G George (G 11th Connecticut) wounded, at Swift's Creek, Virginia
10 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
Occasional cannonading. Still in the rifle-pits and on picket duty. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; Bates, p.191; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
Jacob Browning (A) wounded
Jacob Geisenhoffer (A) wounded
Eugene Chemin (A) wounded
John Wallace (A) wounded
Samuel Peberdy (A) wounded
John Walters (B) wounded
Joseph Donnelly (D) wounded
Henry Francis (F) promoted to capt (possibly 1 March 1864)
James McLoon (A) wounded
William Adams (D) wounded
John Black (D) wounded
Thomas Flynn (D) wounded
William Stackhouse (D) wounded (perhaps 12th)
William O'Connor (62nd PA, later transferred to 91st) died of wounds rcvd in action on 8 May 64
George Mettinger (B) absent sick, in Division Hospital
Jacob Clothier (B) absent sick
11 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
Nothing of interest
Robert Armstrong (H) died, Philadelphia PA, of disease
[Dyer, v.3, p.1604; 1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
12 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued. Assault on the salient.
about 8 am. As a diversion in favor of the Second Corps, the brigade attacked the woods, charging across a field in front of a battery. driving the Confederate pickets out, and engaging the Confederates for three hours. Lentz's report says that the charge was unsuccessful because the 9th Mass had some confusion. Lt Col Joseph Sinex and Lieutenant Howard Shipley were wounded; Major John Lentz assumed command. One of Ayres' aides ordered them to fall back. About 3 pm, the regiment marched slowly through rain, for two miles to the left to support the Sixth Corps. bivouacked for the night. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; Bates, p.191; Welch, p.505; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Walter]
The dead and wounded included
Charles Clime (D)
William Stackhouse (D) wounded (perhaps 10th)
Jones Urwiler (A)
Frank Miller (A) wounded
James Tierney (C), killed on picket; body left on field
Christian Stauze (K) wounded
Albert Quick (A), wounded
John Evans (G) wounded
Joseph Sinex wounded
Howard Shipley wounded
Joseph Andrews (A) killed charging the enemy
John Beaver (A) wounded
William H Carpenter, wounded
Joseph Reynolds (D) wounded
Thomas D Riley (E) shot in head while charging enemy works
John Monteith died of wounds received [or: was killed in action] while charging the enemy's works
Charles Haughey, died 12 May 1864 of wounds received while charging the enemy's works
Samuel Burns (E) wounded in leg
Jacob Afflenback (E) wounded
John L Keever (E) wounded in leg, which was amputated
George Marriner (H) wounded
Adam Murphy (I) wounded
William Carney (E) slightly wounded, in leg
Marcus Ullman (E) wounded
John Kane (K) wounded
Eli Leach (K) wounded
William Mathews (A) deserted
Joseph Reese (D) died in the field in VA of wounds rcvd in action (perhaps 9 Jun 64)
Jacob Appel (62nd PA) died in Andersonville Prison
13 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
At daylight, the brigade marched 1 mile to the right and built breastworks.
The Fifth Corps was on the right of the Union line. Grant decided to have them and the Sixth Corps march through the night to the extreme left, and attack at 4 AM. Unfortunately, inadequate planning (due at least partly to Grant's late decision) and muddy roads (due to weather) delayed the movement. (Rhea)
At 9 the brigade left, and marched all night. (The regiment may have left at 10.) Walter and others straggled.
[Dyer, v.3, p.1604; Lentz's regimental report; brigade itinerary; Walter, part 9; Gordon C Rhea, To the North Anna River: Grant and Lee May 13-25, 1864. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 2000. Pages 65-94. (Pages 78-80 mention the 91st)]
W Rocholiamzky, substitute, mustered in co G (probably 13 Mar 1865)
14 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
Myers Hill, about a mile south of the new Fifth Corps position, dominated it. Meade insisted that it be taken, and Warren ordered Lt Col Otis (140th NY) to take it with the 140th NY and 91st PA. A division of the Sixth Corps, under Emory Upton, was also sent to attack. About 8 AM Otis arrived, and they took the hill. The Confederates counterattacked, but were beaten off, with a heavy artillery fire and Upton's arrival. Meade withdrew Otis's forces, and left Upton's to hold the hill. Grant chose not to attack, partly because surprise had been lost, perhaps because he could not afford to lose large numbers of troops so soon after the Bloody Angle, and because he wrongly believed Lee must have reinforced his right. Late in the afternoon, Early counterattacked and retook the hill. About 6.30, Meade sent three divisions (including Ayres' Fifth Corps division, with the 91st PA) to retake it. Early withdrew, because he was hopelessly outnumbered, and the hill had no importance because of changes in the confederate position. (Rhea)
At 8 am, the 91st and the 140th NY (under command of Col Otis, 140th NY) started on a reconnaissance to front. They discovered a Confederate battery near the Myers or Galt house. sharp fire for about 1/2 hour. They charged and took the Myers' or Galt house and the hill. A brigade of the Sixth Corps relieved them an hour later, and lost the position when charged. At dusk, the 91st PA and others retook the hill under a rapid shelling from Union batteries. They were again relieved by the 6th Corps (a brigade under command of Col Penrose). They moved to the left, in front of the town, and were allowed to bivouac for the night, because they needed rest. Walter rejoined them after that attack; Lt Col Sinex 'gave him a lively overhauling'.
[Bates, p.191; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; Welch, p.505; division itinerary; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Walter; Gordon C Rhea, To the North Anna River: Grant and Lee May 13-25, 1864. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 2000. Pages 65-94. (Pages 78-80 mention the 91st)]
Casualties included
William Hewitt (C) wounded
William McClung (F) wounded
Mansfield Wood (C)
Edward Agnew (D) wounded
David Hewitt (E) shot in the right thigh while charging the Galt house
Robert Wooden (E) wounded in the breast while charging the enemy at the Gault House
Matthew McFetridge (K)
George Stroup (F) wounded
Jervis W Edes (C) wounded
George W Smith (G) wounded
George Poole (H) wounded
Winchester Myers (K) wounded
Justus A Gregory (B) acting regimental adjutant
15 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
At 6 am the regiment moved again. It was rainy and muddy.
[Dyer, v.3, p.1604; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Walter]
James Chism (B) wounded
Patrick Gallagher (B) wounded
John Lentz was in command [letter, 22 July 64]
16 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
The brigade was in trenches and on picket duty.
Alvin Clark (27th Mass) captured at Drury's Bluff VA
[Dyer, v.3, p.1604; brigade itinerary]
17 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
regiment opposite Spotsylvania Court House. worked all night throwing up breast-works. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
18 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
The regiment was subjected to heavy firing. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
William Carpenter (H)'s leave extended 20 days by surgeon's certificate
David Lentz (hq) promoted to capt and AQM
19 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued.
The regiment maneuvered, and then halted in woods on the left of rifle-pits. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Walter [?]]
Charles Burkett (H) died in Fredericksburg of wounds received 8 May
20 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House continued. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604]
The brigade left at 2 pm, and marched 12 miles to Guiney's Station. encamped at 10 pm. According to Lentz, the regiment remained. [brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
Michael Drew (C) died of wounds received in battle (perhaps 23rd)
Thomas Morris (C) killed, North Anna River VA; body left on field (perhaps 23rd)
Andrew Hill (B) entered hospital as a patient
Frank Miller (A) died of wounds received in battle
Joseph Jones (commanding D) certified that George Borlan (D) died in camp of disease contracted in the service, and was apparently healthy when he began serving
21 Rapidan Campaign continued. Spottsylvania Court House concluded.
10 am. regiment prepared for long march. 1 pm took Richmond and Fredericksburg Railroad, passing Guiney's Station. Crossed Mattapony. Halted at Edge Hill Seminary. resumed march toward Hanover Junction, skirmishing with Confederate rear.
Forded North Anna. 2.30 pm formed line of battle. Some members of Co. A went looking for a flock of sheep, and came back with a pair of chickens. Walter lost his chance to eat them when the Confederates attacked suddenly at at 6 pm. This attack caused some wavering. as regiment was in advance. According to Walter, 1/4 of the regiment was absent, and only 1/3 of the officers were present. They were directed to fall back on line established by Sweitzer's brigade. fighting continued for one hour. built breast-works during night. Confederates made several attempts to cut through lines, but failed. [Lentz's regimental report; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; 1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Walter [he says 23 May]]
22 John Kerr (F) wounded
George Oldmixon mustered in as ass't surg
23 Rapidan Campaign continued. North Anna River.
Crossed the North Anna at Jericho Ford, losing eleven in killed and wounded. [Bates, p.191; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; divivision itinerary; brigade itinerary (has 22nd?)]
Freeman Kneedler (E) wounded in action, in leg
John Williams (F) wounded
Daniel Leidheiser (K) wounded in action--shot in leg
Robert Boyd (D/F) wounded
Isaiah Tomlin (C) wounded
Thomas Morris (C) killed, North Anna River VA; body left on field (perhaps 20th) OR buried Nat'l Cem., Richmond VA
Michael Drew (C) died of wounds received in battle (perhaps 20th)
Charles Smith (B) wounded
William Kells (B) wounded
24 Rapidan Campaign continued. North Anna River.
4.30 pm regiment moved again. rested near Gordonsville railroad. established picket line, occasional skirmishing. (Brigade report has the brigade simply in entrenchments and on picket duty.?) [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
Joseph Reynolds (D) died in Philadelphia PA of wounds received in action (perhaps 9 Jun 64)
25 Rapidan Campaign continued. North Anna River. 4.30 am regiment moved to left. met Confederates. threw up breast-works in woods. established picket line. bivouacked for night. (BUT! brigade moved 2 miles to right. went into position in front of enemy at Little River, near Virginia Central Railroad.) [brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; division itinerary]
William Andrews (H) wounded
James Healy (I) wounded
26 Rapidan Campaign continued. North Anna River. On line of the Pamunkey.
The brigade began moving at 8 pm. With the division, it recrossed the North Anna, moving south, and marching all night. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; division itinerary; brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
27 Rapidan Campaign continued. On line of the Pamunkey.
brigade continued march at daylight; halted about 1 mile from Mangohick Church.
William V Stackhouse (D) arrived at Chester Hospital, Delaware County, PA
[1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary; Dyer, v.3, p.1604]
George Baker mustered in 19th Mass
Louis Brosse (I) tried by court martial at Philadelphia
28 Rapidan Campaign continued. On line of the Pamunkey. Totopotomoy.
brigade continued march at daylight. 11 am: crossed Pamunkey River near Hanovertown, 3/4 mile from river. Regiment threw up breast-works a few miles further on, and repulsed Confederates with heavy loss. [brigade itinerary; Lentz's regimental report; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; Bates, p.191; division itinerary; Walter]
Col Gregory ordered to take the provisional battalion under his command and three companies of recruits organized at Alexandria Virginia, to Port Royal by the steamers Argo R. Barton and W. Williams
Louis Brosse (I) acquitted by court martial at Philadelphia
[orders]
29 Rapidan Campaign continued. Totopotomoy.
engagement [?] at Old Church [letter listing battles, Sellers to Bennett, 24 September 1864]
regiment resumed march. moved about 2 miles. skirmishing until near sundown. Could the skirmishing be what the brigade report refers to as going on a reconnaissance on Cold Harbor road, and coming on the Confederates in force? Regiment threw up breast-works. bivouacked for night. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; division itinerary; brigage itinerary; Lentz's regimental report]
30 Rapidan Campaign continued. Totopotomoy.
engagement [?] at Old Church [letter listing battles, Sellers to Bennett, 24 September 1864]
9.30 am advanced toward Bottom's Bridge. 2 pm. threw up breast-works. enemy commenced shelling. Changed front to rear in double-quick. second line of breast-works formed. bivouacked for night. [Lentz's regimental report; Dyer, v.3, p.1604; Bates, p.191; brigade itinerary]
31 Rapidan Campaign continued. Totopotomoy.
7 am. regiment relieved by Ninth Corps. retired to left. remained during day and bivouacked for night. The brigade, however, remained in the same position. [Dyer, v.3, p.1604; division itinerary; 1st brig., 1st div., 5th corps, itinerary]
co.B was "near Old Church"
Major John D Lentz in command (organization table).
James Rulon (B) promoted to sgt (perhaps 1 Jun)
Joseph Miller discharged from regular army
co.B had 2 privates on special duty, 2 men on detached duty, 11 men absent sick or wounded, and 14 men absent without leave
[see monthly return, company B, May 1864]

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revised 28 Apr 14
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