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 The Geography Of The Great War by Frank M. McMurry, Ph.D. (40- page book)

THE 
GEOGRAPHY OF THE GREAT WAR

BY 
FRANK M. McMURRY, PH.D.

New York
THE MACMILLAN CO.
1919
All rights reserved

Table of Contents

Go to page number: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40.

List of Figures (or Illustrations) and Charts

  1. Map of the World showing possessions of United States, Great Britain, France and Germany (map)

  2. Area of Prussia Compared With All Other German States (map)

  3. German submarines of the largest type stopping the Spanish mail streamer off Cadiz. (photo)

  4. Kaiser Wilhelm Canal (map)

  5. Proposed Berlin to Bagdad Railway (map)

  6. Armies, Peace Footing January 1914 (bar chart)

  7. Population Chart (bar chart)

  8. Warship Tonnage January 1914 (bar chart)

  9. Map of the World showing the Nations at War, December 31, 1914 (map)

  10. French troops on the way to the front. (photo)

  11. The approaches to Paris from the east and northeast. (map)

  12. British troops on the western front. (photo)

  13. Eastern Battle Front - 1914 (map)

  14. One of the giant dirigibles guarding the British coast. (photo)

  15. Eastern Battle Front - 1915 (map)

  16. British armored "tank" passing through a burning village on the way to the front in France. (photo)

  17. Western Battle Front - 1917 (map)

  18. A convoy of ships carrying food and supplies to the Allies. (photo)

  19. Map of the World showing the Nations at War - December 31, 1917 (map)

  20. British camp in western France where officers are trained in modern warfare. (photo)

  21. Distributing equipment at the Officers' Training Camp, Plattsburg, N.Y. (photo)

  22. Building "Liberty Ships" on Puget Sound. (photo)

  23. One view of the steel works at Ensley, just outside of Birmingham, Alabama, where now munitions of war are made. (photo)

  24. Military Map of the United States (map)

  25. Training soldiers at Camp Upton, Yaphank, Long Island, N.Y. (photo)

  26. View of an army cantonment on the historic field of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. (photo)

  27. A United States Warship using a smoke screen in the "danger zone." (photo)

  28. A sham battle at Pelham Bay Naval Training camp, Pelham Bay, N.Y. (photo)

  29. Launching a steel "Liberty Ship," shipbuilding yards in Mobile, Alabama. (photo)

  30. A giant American-built airplane, used for bombing purposes. (photo)

  31. American troops disembarking at a port in France. (photo)

  32. Women at Washington, D.C., learning to run a tractor in order to do farm work. (photo)

  33. Filing pledges to save food at the office of the Food Conservation Commission, New York. (photo)

  34. Western Battle Front - July 15, 1918 (map)

  35. American troops on their way to the trenches on the British front. (photo)

  36. Map of the World Showing Nations at War - August 1, 1918 (map)

  37. French children greeting American soldiers on their way to the front in France. (photo)

  38. Percentage of Debt and Comparison of National Wealth and Debt (bar chart)

  39. States of Germany and Colonies formerly in possession of Germany (charts)

  40. Declaration of War: Allied Powers, Central Powers, and Nations that have severed relations with Germany. (chart)


Introduction to World Map

Map of the World showing possessions of United States, Great Britain, France and Germany. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 1. --  Map of the World showing possessions of United States, Great Britain, France and Germany
To see a larger image, click on it.
Key: 
United States = green Britain = pink
French = purple German = orange

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page 1 begins

THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE GREAT WAR
BY FRANK M. McMURRY
Copyright, 1918, by The Macmillan Company

Figure 2. -- Area of Prussia Compared With All Other German States. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 2. -- Area of Prussia Compared With All Other German States
To see a larger image, click on it.

Key: Prussia shaded with hash marks. Other States White
To see these smaller states more clearly, click here.
The smaller states are numbered as follows:

1. Brunswick 8. Lippe
2. Grand Duchy of Saxony 9. Waldeck
3. Mecklenburg-Strelitz 10. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
4. Saxe-Meiningen 11. Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
5. Anhalt 12. Reuss Younger Branch
6. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 13. Schaumburg-Lippe
7. Saxe-Altenburg 14. Reuss Elder Branch


1
. German Empire in 1914 
(Before the War)

In order to understand the geography of the war, it is necessary to make some study of Germany.

States of the German Empire
There are many states in the German Empire, just as there are many in our own country, and they vary in size and importance even much more than do ours. In Figure 2 one can easily see which is largest. How does Prussia compare with all the other states together in area and population?

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page 2

Which is second in area and population? Which is third in each? Trace the boundary of Prussia. Locate Bavaria and Saxony. Note that three of the states are only cities. Name and locate each of these (see page 39).

Our largest state is Texas, which is more than two hundred - times as large as Rhode Island, our smallest. Our largest state in population is New York, which contains more than one hundred times as many people as Nevada, our smallest state in population. Yet we have no state that is nearly equal to all the others either in area or population; in fact, each is a very small part of the whole.

From the map it is plain why people so often name Prussia when speaking of Germany. Perhaps the map suggests to you, too, that it is dangerous for a nation to have one state so much larger than all the others together. In the United States there is no such danger. But if Prussia's importance and power correspond to its size, it can control the other twenty-four states and have its own way. If it happened to be governed by selfish men, all the other states would have to suffer; and even if it were well governed, the other states would have too little of self-government. It is generally believed that these dangers have not been avoided; indeed, that Prussia's bad leadership has been the principal cause of the great war.

Germany's principal colonies
1. Location, population
2. Their importance

Germany has only a small number of colonies, as is seen in Figure 1. Notice their areas. There are three that are each much larger than Germany, and their populations together reach well into area, and the millions (see page 39). All of them are in the torrid zone or very close to it. Locate each of those in Africa. Note the latitude of New Guinea. 

Germany has been greatly interested in her colonies and has spent large sums of money for their development. Her apparent aim has been to find suitable places for the emigration of Germans from the Fatherland. Although the density of population of Germany itself (Fig. 534, main text) is not so great as that of some other countries, it has greatly increased in recent years and some outlet has seemed necessary.

The fact is, however, that very few Germans have emigrated to these colonies. One reason for this is that the torrid climate there makes life almost impossible for white people; at any rate, in such regions the white man soon loses energy and health.

The objection to their kind of government

The kind of government that a country has may be of vital importance to other countries, and that is true of the German government. Its form is a monarchy and the chief officer is the Kaiser, William II. He appoints the leading minister, called the Chancellor, and the latter appoints the other members of the cabinet, such, for example, as Minister of Interior and Minister of Education. The difficulty is that these ministers who form the German cabinet and very largely control the state are responsible to the Kaiser, and not, to the people. Also, the Kaiser is not elected by popular vote, as our President is, but has inherited his office and claims that he holds it by divine right, or by appointment from God alone. Neither is he responsible to the people.

Thus the people have little authority in the government. It is their duty to be directed, -- to obey, rather than to lead. There is no effective check on the Kaiser or on the leading statesmen subject to him, if they happen to be narrow in their plans or too ambitious; these leaders can even declare war without the consent of the people.

To this power our objection is very serious. We do not believe that a few men should have such power. War is so fearful an undertaking, the welfare of the mass of the people is so involved in it, that they ought

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page 3

to have a voice in deciding such an issue; at least, only those who represent them and are fully responsible to them should have that power. Otherwise a small group might at any time make endless trouble both for themselves and for other nations. That is what the small group in Germany has done, in starting this war, and the United States is determined to aid in making such a step impossible again. This is one of our great aims in the present war.

Figure 3. -- German submarines of the largest type stopping the Spanish mail streamer off Cadiz. Copyright © Underwood and Underwood. To see a lager image, click on it.

Figure 3. -- German submarines of the largest type stopping the Spanish mail streamer off Cadiz.
Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.


2
. Examples of Prussian Leadership

The youth of the German Empire

We commonly think of the United States as a young nation, and of the governments of Europe as very old, but the fact is that Germany is the youngest of the great nations. We are nearly a century older than Germany, for that Empire was founded in 1871. There were, of course, German people living in that region long before, but until that date they were not brought together to form the German Empire.

The leadership in German affairs, both before 1871 and since, has rested with Prussia. Several acts show the spirit that has prevailed in Prussia and, therefore, in the German Empire during the last sixty years.

Annexation of Schleswig-Holstein

About 1860 a very strong and unscrupulous man named Otto von Bismarck became the chief minister in Prussia. His aim was to make Prussia powerful without much regard to the rights of other people. One of his early acts was to attack the little country of Denmark and take from it the southern section called Schleswig-Holstein, about one third of the whole country. This region was annexed to Prussia and has remained a part of it ever since (Figure 2).

In area Schleswig-Holstein is nearly equal to Massachusetts, and it has been important as a farming region.

The Kaiser Wilhelm Canal and the naval port, Kiel, have made it especially noted in recent years (Figure 4). The canal was dug in order to secure a short and safe route for vessels from the North Sea to the Baltic. Kiel is a port at the eastern end of the canal, with a harbor so remarkably good that it has become the chief naval station of Germany. German war vessels can reach the North Sea very quickly from this haven, and they can escape just as quickly by this route when there is need.

Very soon after 1870 Germany found a

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Figure 4. -- Kaiser Wilhelm Canal. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 4. -- Kaiser Wilhelm Canal
To see a larger image, click on it.

 

Annexation of Alsace-Lorraine

chance to quarrel with France and improved the opportunity. France was invaded and Paris captured within a few months. The terms of peace that were finally agreed upon required France to pay to the Germans an indemnity of one billion dollars and also to cede to them the region called Alsace-Lorraine (Figure 2).

This is a region about as large as Connecticut and, like Schleswig-Holstein, valuable for its farm products, especially grapes, and for its textile industries. But there were two other reasons why Prussia coveted it.

It is a land that is remarkably rich in iron ore and coal, and while Germany had ores in other sections, none of those sections was so rich in these two minerals. The Germans foresaw that their need of iron would be likely to increase in the future, owing both to increased manufacturing and also to possible war. War calls for an enormous amount of iron and steel. In 1911 they obtained over three times as much iron ore from this territory as from all the rest of Prussia; and had they not had these rich iron mines in their possession this great war would have ceased long ago.

The other reason was, perhaps, just as important in their minds. Alsace-Lorraine had been the principal source of iron in France, and if France were deprived of it, the Germans thought she could hardly carry on a successful war in the future. She might, then, be reduced to a second-class power and Germany would be able to overcome her at will.


3
. Ambitions of Germany since 1871

Reasons for encouragement

The Prussians and some of the small German states that had joined them had much reason to feel encouraged by their successes. As a result of the war with Denmark they had acquired extensive territory; as a result of their struggle with France they had obtained still more valuable territory and a billion dollars besides. There was another great benefit. This Franco-Prussian war, as it was called, had brought the many small political divisions of the Germans together and made it possible to found, by their union, a new nation called the German Empire. That great event took place, as stated before, in 1871.

Thus the Germans started out as a new nation feeling highly pleased with themselves. They had been invincible in fighting and had also become rich. A billion dollars in those days seemed a fabulous amount and made the Germans feel that they were rolling in wealth. Another fact gave reason for great pride. Neither of these wars had

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lasted more than a few months and they were therefore not very costly. That fact must have awakened a very important question in the minds of the people: If wars can prove so profitable and yet can be made to cost so little, may they not be very desirable for a nation? May not war be a very good thing?

The Middle-Europe plan

After the founding of the empire Bismarck remained Chancellor for many years. He was ambitious to develop its power to the fullest extent, indeed to make it supreme in Europe just as he had made Prussia supreme in Germany. To this end not only schools were developed and mines and factories, but great schemes for political power as well. One of the latter was called the "Mittel-Europa" or in English the "Middle-Europe" plan.

1. What the plan was

This was a scheme for the combination under one leadership of as many of the countries in central Europe as possible. They were to support one another in commerce and also in defense against enemies in war. The governments were to be independent as before, but the several nations were to act together in military and economic matters.

2. Who the leader was to be

On Fig. 416, main text, you can see what nations might have been expected to join such a league. The two most prominent would naturally be Germany and Austria-Hungary. Several, if not all, of the Balkan States would be included, and Turkey, for she still had some territory in Europe. It was hoped, too, that Norway and Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and Italy might be induced to join.

Of the two most prominent nations Austria-Hungary could not, of course, be the leader. Her area was somewhat greater than that of Germany and her population not very much less. Her population was very mixed, however, with many opposing interests, and their union under one ruler was very loose. It had long been expected that at the death of the Emperor Francis Joseph, which occurred only in 1916, the empire would necessarily fall apart, according to the many nationalities that composed it.

In such circumstances the leadership would naturally fall to Germany, for she was by far the strongest power.

Such leadership by Germany, since it would allow her to dominate this group of states, both in military and economic matters, would immensely increase her power both in war and in peace.

There was another project which was closely related to this one and was really a continuation of it. This became known as the "Berlin-to-Bagdad Plan," and as time passed the two were developed together.

The Berlin-to-Baghdad plan
1. What the project was

According to this scheme the Middle-Europe project was to be extended so as to include southwestern Asia. Asia Minor just south of the Black Sea is held by Turkey, and to the south and southeast of that region are a number of weak Mohammedan states somewhat under the control of Turkey. Through a close alliance with Turkey, Germany secured valuable rights in this entire area, including the right to plant colonies, develop trade, and build railways. An especially important feature in the plan was the building of a railroad all the way from Constantinople to Bagdad, more than a thousand miles distant, on the Tigris River. This river flows through the famous country of Mesopotamia and to the Persian Gulf. This road would, of course, be connected with the road from Berlin to Constantinople, so that Berlin, and even Hamburg, would be directly connected by rail with Bagdad; hence the name, the " Berlin-to-Bagdad Plan." The right for its construction was obtained from Turkey by Germany in 1902-1903. Figure 5 (see below) shows how nearly completed this railroad was in January, 1918. Estimate the number of miles

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that remain to be built. Note the countries through which it passes.

Figure 5. -- Proposed Berlin to Bagdad Railway. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 5. -- Proposed Berlin to Bagdad Railway
Key:
Completed Line is represented by a solid black line 
Uncompleted Line by dashed lines.
To see a larger image, click on it.

 

The Turkish Government has always been regarded as exceedingly untrustworthy and cruel; and it has allowed or even favored so many massacres of innocent people within its borders that it has hardly been classed among the civilized nations. Yet in order to carry through the Berlin to Bagdad project the Germans cultivated the friendship of the Turks diligently, and the Kaiser, in a speech at Damascus in 1898, declared:

"The three hundred million Mohammedans who live scattered over the globe maybe assured of this, that the German Emperor will be their friend at all times."

2. Its value in time of peace

Much of the Turkish Empire is arid; but in Bible times the Tigris-Euphrates Valley, or Mesopotamia, was very productive, and by the aid of irrigation it could be made so again. It contains valuable mineral deposits, also. It promised, therefore, to be a good substitute for some of the colonies that Germany thought she needed so badly.

The railroad as a means for transportation of goods secured a very important advantage. Heretofore the shortest route by water for goods from India, the East Indies, and other countries of eastern Asia, to western Europe has been around Arabia, through the Suez Canal and the entire length of the Mediterranean, to the Atlantic Ocean. Trace this course in Figure 1. This was usually a safer and easier route than any by land. Even goods from many parts of the Turkish Empire have had to be transported long distances by camels in order to reach Europe. But this railway would solve these difficulties of transportation. It would furnish a far shorter and more convenient route to and from the Orient, and save a great quantity

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of time. It is no wonder that Germany magnified such an advantage.

3. Its value in time of war

Preparation for war, as has been indicated, has always been an important part of the German plans. This proposed road secured a very great advantage in case of war, particularly war with either Russia or Great Britain, who were her most dangerous opponents among the Great Powers.

It gave to Germany the control of Constantinople and, thereby, of the passage from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. This is the outlet by water on which Russia has always been most dependent, for her ports in the Baltic Sea and on the Arctic are hard to reach and frozen up much of the year. Yet Russia could now easily be blocked at this point by Germany.

The most valuable colony in all the British Empire is India, toward which this railroad reaches. King George is known as King of England and Emperor of India. There are an enormous population and untold wealth in that vast country, and no doubt Germany has often cast longing eyes in its direction. If she were at war with England this railroad might make it easy for her to make a vast amount of trouble in India, and perhaps to attack it directly with an army.

4. Why this plan is offensive to the world

The realization of the Berlin-to-Bagdad plan required that Germany dominate all the countries through which the road passed; in short, they would practically have to be governed by Germany or her allies. In these countries are people of many different races and languages who have few interests in common and who are just as anxious to govern themselves as we are to govern ourselves. Our idea is that they should have this privilege; that it would be most unjust and an act of extreme tyranny for another nation, simply because it had the power, to subject these peoples to its own will. We should not expect them all to submit, and the plan would therefore mean a state of constant warfare over this vast area.

Referring to this plan of the Germans President Wilson, in his Flag Day Address, June 14, 1917, said:

"Their plan was to throw a broad belt of German military power and political control across the very center of Europe and beyond the Mediterranean into the heart of Asia; and Austria-Hungary was to be as much their tool and pawn as Serbia or Bulgaria or Turkey or the ponderous states of the East. Austria-Hungary, indeed, was to become part of the central German Empire, absorbed and dominated by the same forces and influences that had originally cemented the German states themselves. The dream had its heart at Berlin. It could have had a heart nowhere else! It rejected the idea of solidarity of race entirely. The choice of peoples played no pact in it at all. It contemplated binding together racial and political units which could be kept together only by force -- Czechs, Magyars, Croats, Serbs, Roumanians, Turks, Armenians -- the proud states of Bohemia and Hungary, the stout little commonwealths of the Balkans, the indomitable Turks, the subtile peoples of the East. These people did not wish to be united. They ardently desired to direct their own affairs, would be satisfied only by undisputed independence. They could be kept quiet only by the presence or the constant threat of armed men. They would live under a common power only by sheer compulsion and await the day of revolution. But the German military statesmen had reckoned with all that and were ready to deal with it in their own way."

Pan-Germanism

It might seem that German ambition would be satisfied with all the preceding plans. But there is one other aim that shows still wider ambitions among some of the leading Germans. It is known by the name of Pan-Germanism.

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There are many Germans scattered over the earth. Millions of our own citizens are of German birth or descent; there is a large number in Brazil, in Chile, and elsewhere. It was the plan to unite all these as far as possible. For that purpose many societies were formed in these countries, and other societies were organized in Germany to keep in touch with them. German-speaking people in foreign lands were urged to preserve the use of the German language, and money from Germany was freely spent in foreign lands to found German newspapers which should spread German culture.

Armies, Peace Footing January 1914. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 6. -- Armies, Peace Footing January 1914
To see a larger image, click on it.


There was no objection to all this provided it aimed at nothing more than a warm feeling toward the Mother Country. With many Germans, however, it meant much more. With them the idea had become established that all Germans, no matter where they dwelt, should be regarded as forming one great nation. And again, of course, that great nation was to be Germany. In 1905 Germany passed a law providing that every German who became a citizen of a foreign country might at the same time retain his citizenship in Germany. In that case, if a war were to begin between Germany and the United States, the 15,000,000 Germans in our country would be invited to count themselves as Germans rather than Americans and to act accordingly. That would tend to make trouble for the rest of the world; but it might strengthen Germany, and that was the object. The part "pan" in the term "Pan-Germanism" is from the Greek meaning "all," and the name signifies the extension of German rule wherever Germans live.

Preparations for war

All these plans made war a possibility at any time and a certainty some time in the near future. German statesmen foresaw this outcome from the beginning and for the last fifty years their preparations for war have kept pace with their development of these projects. Any American who visited Germany thirty years ago was struck with the prominence of army officers and soldiers everywhere. Even then every able-bodied man had to receive some training for war. Since that time such preparations have greatly increased. In the years 1911, 1912, and 1913 the German army in time of peace was raised, from 515,000 to 866,000 men. War taxes were raised correspondingly. The government made great purchases abroad of many kinds of military supplies. Quantities of nitrate of soda, for instance, for the manufacture of explosives, were imported from

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Chile and stored. German manufacturers of chemicals used in munitions were forbidden to export them. Railroads leading to France and Belgium, as well as to Russia, together with their equipment, were improved, so as to be ready for transportation of troops at a moment's notice. The navy was strengthened in corresponding fashion. Austria-Hungary and Turkey, already under the guidance of the Germans according to the Middle-Europe and Berlin-to-Bagdad projects, were making similar improvements. In 1914 the Germans felt that their preparation was complete.

In an address delivered in Chicago, September 14, 1917, Elihu Root, former United States Senator from New York, summed up the case as follows:

"It now appears beyond the possibility of doubt that this war was made by Germany, pursuing a long and settled purpose. For many years she had been preparing to do exactly what she has done, with a thoroughness, a perfection of plans, and a vastness of provision in men, munitions, and supplies never before equaled or approached in human history. She brought the war on when she chose, because she chose, in the belief that she could conquer the earth nation by nation."

Figure 7. --  Population Chart. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 7. --  Population Chart
To see a larger image, click on it.


4
. The War in 1914

Unpreparedness of the Allies Germany

While Germany was making all these preparations so openly, she declared that they were for defense only, and other nations did not make themselves ready for the attack that Germany was really planning. Perhaps France alone fully comprehended the situation. Yet her population (Figure 7) and resources were much inferior to those of Germany. Likewise Russia's army, though large (Figure 6), was inferior to Germany's army in training, equipment, and effectiveness. All of the nations now allied hoped still that war might be avoided. Consequently they did not prepare for war as completely as Germany did.

Among the Great Powers of Europe that entered the war immediately, England had by far the smallest army and it was scattered widely over the earth. She had small supplies of munitions and few factories for making them. Her people had not believed that Germany would provoke a war. But

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Figure 8. --  Warship Tonnage January 1914. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 8. --  Warship Tonnage January 1914
To see a larger image, click on it.

she did have the advantage of a great navy. In Figure 8 (above) compare the warship tonnage of the several powers. England's navy has been her salvation.

The event that immediately led to the war occurred in Austria near the Serbian border. On June 28, 1914, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, and his wife, were assassinated by Serbian sympathizers. Bad feeling already existed between Austria and Serbia, and this deed naturally made it worse.

One reason for the bad feeling was that Serbia was hostile to the Middle-Europe plan, and was, therefore, opposed to the Berlin-to-Bagdad railway, which would have to pass through its territory (Figure 5). That was an unpardonable offense against Germany and her allies.

Feeling that they were fully ready for war, the Central Powers now saw the excuse for beginning it. As punishment for the murder of the Archduke, Austria, with the full support of Germany, made demands on Serbia that were altogether too humiliating for acceptance. Then, when Serbia rejected them, war was declared.

The responsibility of Germany in the whole matter is stated by President Wilson, in his Flag Day Address of 1917, in the following words:

"Across the path of this railway to Bagdad lay Serbia - an independent country whose sovereign alone among those of southwestern Europe had no marriage connection with Berlin, a Serbia that looked toward Russia. That is why Europe was nearly driven into war in 1913; that is why Germany stood so determinedly behind Austria's demands in 1914 and forced war. She must have her 'corridor' to the southeast; she must have political domination all along the route of the great economic empire she planned."

The war in the west
1. Reasons for entering France through Belgium

The first great object of the Central Powers was to conquer France, and they hoped to accomplish that feat before Russia, on their east, could strike an effective blow. 

In order to do this they must capture Paris. The shortest distance from Germany to Paris is only 170 miles, west from Metz (Figure 11, see below). But whether one approaches Paris from the east or northeast, the route is difficult on account of the rough surface. This map shows a series of hills running in a general northern and southern direction between the Paris basin and the German frontier. On the side toward Paris these hills have loner gentle slopes, but on the eastern side they have steep slopes that are hard, to climb. The rivers run between these ranges of hills and in some places cut their way through

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Figure 9 -- Map of the World showing the Nations at War, December 31, 1914. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 9 -- Map of the World showing the Nations at War, December 31, 1914
Key:
Allied Powers and their Colonies are half-shaded
The Central Powers and their Colonies are solid black
To see a larger image, click on it.


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them. If one followed their courses, one could find a comparatively easy road. But their valleys are narrow, with steep sides in some places, and these can be easily defended against a powerful enemy.

There is only one route that is comparatively level land all the way, and that route leads through Belgium and then down southwest near the coast toward Paris. This is the route that the Teutons chose. It is longer than any other, being 250 miles, but it is the easiest way on account of the level ground over which it passes.

There is another reason that no doubt influenced this choice. Belgium is a remarkably fertile country; also, southern Belgium and northern France are, together, one of the richest mining and manufacturing regions in the world. France obtains from this section nine-tenths of her iron ore, as well as half of all her coal. Much more than one-half of all her iron and steel factories are located here. In choosing this route, therefore, the Teutons could hope not only to save time, but also to enrich themselves greatly while taking from their enemies the means of carrying on the war. For these reasons their choice must have seemed to them a masterly one.

Figure 10. -- French troops on the way to the front. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 10. -- French troops on the way to the front.
Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.

 

2. Reason against entering by that route

There were most vital reasons, however, against this selection. Germany had pledged herself by solemn agreement to respect the neutrality of Belgium, and if there was any sense of honor in her she would keep this pledge. Also England had bound herself to protect the neutrality of Belgium; so it was likely that she would declare war against the Teutons if they crossed the Belgian frontier. But honor counted little with the Germans when such advantages were involved, and England's army was so small that the war might be finished before it could be made to count. So Belgium had to suffer.

This invasion of Belgium by Germany, contrary to her own pledge, was an act of tremendous significance for all the nations of the earth, particularly for the small ones.

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Figure 11. -- The approaches to Paris from the east and northeast. To see a larger map, click on it.

Figure 11. -- The approaches to Paris from the east and northeast.
To see a larger image, click on it.

Key:
Direction of German Invasion indicated by arrows
Furthest Advance of Germans indicated by three wiggly lines
Battle Line End of 1914 indicated by three broken wiggly lines
Fortified Cities indicated by a small solid colored square, for example: Verdun
Open Cities indicated by a small clear circle, for example: Louvain

 

3. Importance of Germany's act

It was really a declaration that the small nation must expect to suffer in the future. Might, not Right, was to rule; and any people that lacked the physical force to protect itself against attack might expect to be subdued and governed by stronger nations. Never was a more direct blow struck against liberty.

The Germans had planned to march a certain distance each day, and allowed themselves six days to get past Belgium. They did not expect the Belgians to have the courage to try to stop them.

At the start, though, there was a delay. When the army appeared at the frontier of the little country, the German commander informed its people that it was necessary for his army to cross, but that the Belgians would not be injured if they did not resist, and that they would be paid in gold for any damage that might be done.

To his astonishment they refused. This was their reply: "The Belgian government, if they were to accept the proposals submitted to them, would sacrifice the honor of the nation and betray their duty toward Europe." King Albert did not hesitate. He threw his small army across the German path, even though it meant destruction for both army and people, and he delayed their advance ten full days. The Germans were furious and inflicted on Belgium awful punishment.

The ten days, however, saved France. It

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4. Importance of Belgium's resistance

gave the French time to assemble their armies and the English time to send a small force to their aid. Also, this act of the Belgians aroused the admiration of the world; it was as noble as the conduct of the Germans was ignoble, and it drew to them the support of fair-minded people everywhere for the awful years that have followed.

The Germans soon left Belgium behind and came within sight of Paris. Figure 11 shows the line that they held when nearest to the city. Estimate the distance. The French government had left the capital, on account of the imminent danger, and moved to Bordeaux. It looked as though the city would have to fall.

Figure 12. --  British troops on the western front. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 12. --  British troops on the western front.
British Official Photograph
To see a larger image, click on it.
5. The result of the campaign

But the furious battle of the Marne turned the invaders back, and the line that they finally had to take at the end of the year's fighting is also shown in Figure 11. This was one of the great battles of history. For the time being, at least, it decided that France should remain French and not become Prussian.

The war in the east

Germany did not succeed in crushing France before Russia could act. On the contrary, Russia assembled a great army and invaded East Prussia. In order to meet this attack Germany was compelled to withdraw some of her forces from France. This helped to check the Germans on the Marne. Russia also invaded Austria, and thus she kept the Teutons exceedingly busy on the eastern front. Figure 13 shows the lines held in the east toward the end of 1914.

The war upon the seas

The superiority of the British navy (Figure 8) was immediately made to count. By the end of the year the German fleets, war and merchant, were driven from the seas. When it is recalled that three fourths of the earth's surface is water, the importance of this advantage begins to be apparent. All this area was at the disposal of the British for transporting supplies, as well as troops from her colonies; at the same time it was closed to Germany.


5
. The War in 1915

Discouragements to the Allies

The campaign of 1914 had proved encouraging to the Allies on the whole; but there were many reasons for discouragement during the year 1915.

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1. On the Western front

Several attempts were made to drive the Germans from their position in the west, but without much success. The line of battle remained throughout the year much the same as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 13. --  Eastern Battle Front - 1914. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 13. --  Eastern Battle Front - 1914
Key:
Furthest advances of Russians is represented by a dash line.
Eastern Front at close of 1914 is represented by a solid black line.
To see a larger image, click on it.
2. On the eastern front

In the east the Russians were badly defeated. Figure 13 (above) shows how far into German and Austrian territory they had advanced in 1914. But this year they were driven out of this conquered territory and lost extensive areas of their own. All Poland was taken from them, including the great cities of Warsaw and Lodz, and they lost over 2,000,000 men in captured, killed, and wounded. Figure 15 marks the line of battle in the closing days of the year.

3. Advance of the Berlin-to-Bagdad plan

Turkey (page 40) had joined the Central Powers in 1914, but the Balkan States, lying between Turkey and Austria, had not, with the exception of Serbia, declared in favor of either side. Under those conditions, and with Serbia one of the Allies, both the Middle-Europe project and that for the Berlin-to-Bagdad railway were blocked.

In order to check them still further, the Allies planned an expedition against the Dardanelles, with the object of getting possession of this outlet from the Black Sea and capturing Constantinople. In spite of great efforts it resulted only in failure and enormous losses of men.

It had other bad effects. Bulgaria had hesitated to ally herself with either party; but now she felt it safe to join the Teutons. Then the Austro-Germans and Bulgarians together overran Serbia and crushed that nation. These events brought the Middle-Europe plan to much nearer realization, and paved the way for further development of the great Bagdad railway. The Central Powers had good reason to feel encouraged.

German barbarities 

Even in war, horrible as it is, there are many rules to be followed to which all the leading governments have agreed. These rules were supposed to have force of law for the various nations and to limit its evils in important ways.

While Germany had fully agreed to these laws she has shown no more respect for them than she showed for her agreement in regard to Belgium. Here are only a few of the things she has done in violation of international law: she has repeatedly massacred men, women, and children, ap-

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parently with the main object of making herself feared; she has robbed conquered territory of food, raw materials for manufactures, tools, machinery, and anything else she could lay her hands on, that, after removal to her own land, might be of value to her own people; what she could not hope to use she has wantonly destroyed, simply in order to leave citizens in conquered territory as destitute as possible. For example, to that end she has even killed orchard after orchard of fruit trees and has set fire to houses and farm implements. Tens of thousands of civilians in Belgium, Poland, and elsewhere have been transported to Teuton lands to work as slaves; men, women, and children have been placed in front of the firing line in order to protect the Teuton soldiers; poison gas and liquid fire have been introduced. Probably every international law to which Germany had agreed has been broken by her repeatedly. It is well for us to know such facts in order that we may understand the kind of enemy we are fighting.

Reasons for encouragement among the Allies 
1. Entry of Italy on side of Allies
2. Loss of colonies by Germany

In 1915 there occurred some events that brought much encouragement. One was the entrance of Italy on the side of the Allies. In Figures 6, 7, and 8 notice her population as compared with that of other countries; also the size of her army and her warship tonnage. The fact that she produces very little coal and iron greatly reduces her strength; but in spite of that fact she has brought very valuable help.

As soon as she lost all control of the seas, Germany had to leave her colonies to their fate. One of the first to be taken was Kiau-Chau (Figure 1), by Japan. Germany had highly valued this colony. Other islands in the Pacific were soon lost. By the end of 1915 all the four large German colonies in Africa had been invaded and most of their territory conquered  (Figure 1). Germany has no colonies now.

Figure 14. -- One of the giant dirigibles guarding the British coast. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 14. -- One of the giant dirigibles guarding the British coast.
British Official Photograph
To see a larger image, click on it.
3. Loyalty of British colonies

When England declared war, she naturally expected the support of all her English colonies. This support was of very great importance, for these constitute a large part of the British Empire. The "Mother Country," called the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland," includes England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. It has an area all together of only about 120,000 square miles, which is less than one half that of Texas; its population is more than 45,000,000, which is over ten times that of Texas. Compared with the United States the United Kingdom is a small country, both in size and population (Figure 7). How does it compare with Germany?

(1) Extent of the colonies

When the colonies are added, however, the

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Figure 15. -- Eastern Battle Front - 1915. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 15. -- Eastern Battle Front - 1915
Key:
Eastern Front at Beginning of German Drive ------
Eastern Front at close of 1915

Empire is enormous. On Figure 1 note how many parts of the earth belong to the British Empire. Its possessions are found in every continent and border every ocean. In North America they are Canada and Newfoundland. Name the most important parts of Asia that are British possessions; of Africa. What other important regions are British? Note the population of India; of Canada; of Australia (main text, pp. 411, 424, 425). All these possessions together increase the area under English control more than 12,000,000 square miles, and the population 450,000,000. It is evident that it made a very great difference to the British whether these dependencies supported them strongly in the conduct of the war or whether they refused support.

(2) Germany's expectation in regard to their loyalty

Germany did not believe that England's colonies would respond vigorously to the call from the Mother Country; and she had strong reasons for this belief.

Undoubtedly the Germans argued that if these possessions belonged to Germany, many of them would break away from German control at the first opportunity. Schleswig-Holstein has been a problem to the German government ever since its annexation; and Alsace-Lorraine has caused far more trouble. There has probably never been a time since 1870 when the great majority of the inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine would not have returned to French control, if they had had a chance to vote on the question. Germany has shown a remarkable tendency to arouse the hatred of the foreign peoples whom she has governed, and of course she would not admit that England possessed any more skill than she herself had shown in governing colonies.

The long distance of many of the dependencies from England made it especially difficult for them to keep in close touch with the Mother Country. Difference in language and customs in many cases would cause her influence to be felt still less. In such circumstances it seemed hardly probable that a war that she declared would lead them to share fully with her in hardship and danger.

Aside from such reasons for disloyalty, Germany proposed to supply one herself. She set to work, even before the war, to stir up discontent among many of the colonies. Furnished with large sums of money, men were sent who gave their best efforts toward stirring up in the colonies ill feeling toward

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the English and aiding any movements that might lead to disloyalty and rebellion. This seems an easy task, too, when one remembers that in any country there are many persons who grumble against the government. The fact that not many years ago England had been at war with some of her colonists, especially those in South Africa, gave hope of great success in this attempt. Germans have been employed to stir up trouble in this manner in probably every one of the British colonies of importance. The ambition was not merely to prevent aid to the British but to compel the British to consume much of their strength in quelling rebellion among their colonies. Indeed, by that means they hoped that England would be so fully occupied that she would have little energy left for fighting the Germans.

(3) Their response to the call of the Mother Country 

To the astonishment of the Germans their plan did not work. The British Empire did not fall apart. Of the scores and scores of colonies, big and little, not one has declared its independence. On the contrary, their loyalty has astonished the world. Not only have they remained friendly; they have joined actively in the prosecution of the war, furnishing men, money, and supplies to the fullest extent possible. The war against Turkey has been very greatly aided by soldiers from India. Canada has sent to the battle fields about a half million men -- an undertaking greater than it would be for us to send six millions. Australia and New Zealand have done correspondingly well. Even the small islands have been eager to do their bit. Early in 1916 Jamaica, with a population of less than one million, sent her second ship load, consisting of about eleven hundred men.

No one had known before how firmly the many parts of the British Empire were put together. No one had known whether, at a great crisis, the Empire would crumble, each division of people to form an independent nation; or whether its parts would unite more closely than ever to form one more powerful nation. The response of the colonies has answered this question.

(4) Reasons for this loyally

No doubt one reason for this result was the sense of danger that the dependencies felt when Germany declared that Might rather than Right should rule the world. Independent small nations in that case had little chance; they must ally themselves with others in order to be protected. This danger, then, tended to unite them and to draw them to the more powerful Mother Country.

Yet they would hardly have responded so willingly to the call, had they not in past years been treated with respect by the United Kingdom; had they not been given freedom to a large extent; and had they not been well protected as British subjects when protection was needed. The occasion was a test of the kind of government Britain had established over her colonies; and -- to the disgust of Germany -- she stood the test astonishingly well.

The greatness of the cause must have been a third reason for this response. The war at first may have seemed remote to some of the colonies, but they soon saw that Germany was threatening the existence of democracy throughout the world. The only hope that men will ever enjoy the right to govern themselves in peace lies in the destruction of militarism. The war, therefore, concerned them directly and they must share in the struggle.

The exhibition of loyalty by the British colonies was one of the especially encouraging facts in the midst of' the many discouragements of the year 1915.


6
. The War in 1916

In the west two great battles were fought Verdun and the Somme, each lasting several months and resulting in defeat to the Germans with enormous losses of men. The

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Events on the east and west fronts

line, however, as drawn in Figure 11, was not greatly changed. The Russians and Italians were also successful in opposing the Austrians. The balance of the fighting was, therefore, favorable to the Allies.

Further progress of the Middle-Europe and Bagdad Railway plans

Roumania, however, who had entered the war the on side of the Allies, was conquered. Her rich wheat fields and oil wells were taken. She made the third Balkan State that had been added to Teuton territory since the war began. This addition brought the Middle-Europe plan almost to full realization. Greece alone remained neutral. The war was bringing its reward.

Events in Turkey also advanced the railway project. A considerable British force from India had marched up the Tigris River toward Bagdad (Figure 5), winning some victories on the way. But they were surrounded by the Turks and finally compelled to surrender. The force that was lost consisted of 13,000 men. The main part of the railroad that remained to be built was in this region, and this victory brought the possibility of its completion much nearer.

 

Figure 16. -- British armored "tank" passing through a burning village on the way to the front in France.

Figure 16. -- British armored "tank" passing through a burning
village on the way to the front in France.

British Official Photograph


7
. The War in 1917

On the western front

The Germans in France, early in the year, retreated a considerable distance along a fifty-mile front to positions that they could better defend. Compare the line in Figure 17 with that in Figure 11. In this region the Allies in heavy battles won other victories that were of much importance. Yet no decisive results were reached on this front, during the year.

On the Russian front

Russia sprang a surprise on the world in 1917, a surprise whose results for good and evil are thus far vast but uncertain. First came the revolution early in the year, the Czar abdicating in March and the government being taken over by a moderately liberal party. Finally a very radical party, called the Bolsheviki, obtained control. They ignored all obligation to the Allies, completely undermined army discipline, and made a separate peace with Germany. Although up to 1917 Russia had fought hard and suffered fearfully on the side of the Allies, she now withdrew from the war. From this year on, therefore, the line of battle in this part

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Figure 17. -- Western Battle Front - 1917. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 17. -- Western Battle Front - 1917
To see a larger image, click on it.
Key:
Line at close of 1917 (solid line)

of the east, as indicated in Figure 15, entirely disappeared. This withdrawal was a most severe blow to the Allies, for the Germans began not only to overrun Russian territory at will, but also to transport their troops that were not needed in this region to other battle lines.

On the Italian front

This act of Russia had a fearful effect in northern Italy. On that line enormous Austrian forces, many of them brought from Russia, were assembled and hurled against Italy. That country suffered terrible losses and the work she had accomplished during the preceding two years was undone.

Checks to the Middle-Europe and the Bagdad Railway Projects

During 1917 the Allies more than retrieved their recent losses in the Tigris valley. Early in the year Bagdad was captured by the British and most of Palestine also was taken from the

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British early in December of this year. It began to look now as though the Teutons would never extend their railroad to Bagdad and the Persian Gulf, and without the addition of this section the whole scheme lost its value.

At the same time a blow was struck against the Middle-Europe plan. The one remaining neutral power among the Balkan States was Greece. Its ruler, King Constantine, was violently pro-German, while a majority of the Greeks favored the Allies. During this year Constantine was deposed and Greece joined the Allies (page 40).

This was surely a deep disappointment to the Teutons. The location of Greece as an Allied power, so close to the Serbians, who were still hostile to the Teutons even though conquered, and so near to the railway, might cause strong opposition to both projects at any time.

 

Figure 18. -- A convoy of ships carrying food and supplies to the Allies. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 18. -- A convoy of ships carrying food and supplies to the Allies.
Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.
On the seas

This was the year in which the submarine reached its greatest destructiveness. Up to the first of this year it had been active and, together with mines, had destroyed nearly 4,000,000 tons of merchant shipping. This was only a small part of the entire British merchant marine.

But up to this time a great many vessels had been spared from attack. Now on February 1, 1917, the plan of unlimited cruelty was adopted; the use of the submarine was freed from restrictions and any vessels were attacked and sunk without warning, no matter what nation they represented or who was on them. The civilized world gasped at such frightfulness; but it was believed by the Germans to be a sure means of winning the war, and that was what they sought. International law did not count with them.

The German people were assured by their leaders that such use of the submarine would bring the English to their knees in a few months. The latter had to receive much of their food, ammunition, and other supplies from abroad, and Germany thought that the submarine would cut off all such aid. With England out of the war, it would soon end.

From January to June they sank 3,600,000 tons of shipping. It was a critical period for the Allies. But means for protection against the submarine were developed and its destructiveness began to decline. England was not starved out and the crisis is past. The policy of frightfulness, however, had

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Figure 19. -- Map of the World showing the Nations at War - December 31, 1917. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 19. -- Map of the World showing the Nations at War - December 31, 1917
To see a larger image, click on it.
Key:
The Allied Powers and their Colonies (Diagonal hashed)
The Central Powers and their Colonies (Solid Black)

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unfavorable consequences for the Germans, which they, no doubt, appreciate now far more than they did then.


8
. Additions to the Allied Nations

New enemies to the Teutons

During 1917 eight new countries, representing all parts of the earth, entered the war against Germany, while not a single new power joined the Teutons. On page 40 there is a list of these powers with the dates on which war was declared. Note these dates. (In Figure 19 note their names and locations. How many continents do they represent?)

Their reasons for entering the war

Originally it was generally expected that the war would last only a few months. Now after two and one half years of awful fighting, these onlookers determined to assist in blocking the Teutons, no matter how fearful the sacrifices might be. Why did they take such risk, and all on one side? What did it mean?

It meant that it took all this time for these nations to grasp the situation; to comprehend the objects of the Teutons; and to realize the methods they were adopting in pursuit of these objects.

They had been astounded at the absence of all sense of honor on the part of Germany when she invaded Belgium and declared her contract to respect its neutrality only a "scrap of paper." They had been horrified at her brutality toward the Belgians and other conquered peoples. They had been shocked at her selfishness and greed in robbing conquered territory. When the Lusitania was sunk, destroying 1198 lives, 114 of them American, they saw that she was inconceivably cruel. When, therefore, her plots and conspiracies began to be uncovered in all parts of the world, they realized that she was wholly unworthy of trust. The significance of Pan-Germanism had now been made clear; and it menaced the liberties of the world. It was, therefore, the duty of all nations to combine to put it down (sic; no period)

 

Figure 20. -- British camp in western France where officers are trained in modern warfare. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 20. -- British camp in western France where officers are trained in modern warfare.
To see a larger image, click on it.

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9
. The United States in the War

Our resources compared with those of Germany

The declaration of war by the United States meant a great addition to the forces of the Allies. Our population is over 100,000,000, while that of Germany is less than 70,000,000. In area we are far superior to Germany, since we have over 3,000,000 square miles, while she has only 210,000, which is much less than that of Texas alone. In raw materials, manufactures, and wealth our superiority over Germany is also striking. We produce nearly twice as much coal and iron as Germany, we manufacture more than twice as many goods and our total wealth is about three times hers.

Why Germany did not fear us

In spite of these facts Germany showed contempt for us as a possible enemy. Why? First of all, because as a people we are remarkably devoted to peace. At the time we declared war our standing army was composed of only about 100,000 men (see Figure 6), a very small number when compared with the 866,000 in the German standing army. Beyond this number, we had very few trained soldiers, while every able-bodied man in Germany had received extensive training. On the other hand, peace societies were numerous and active throughout the land, urging the avoidance of all war, and some influential persons had reached the point where they opposed allowing children even to play with tin soldiers because it directed their thoughts too much to fighting. As a nation we knew that we would provoke no war; and up to that time we were convinced that no one was likely to attack us. In short, we cherished the hope and expectation that all war would be avoided by us in the future.

 

Figure 21. -- Distributing equipment at the Officers' Training Camp, Plattsburg, N.Y. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 21. -- Distributing equipment at the Officers' Training Camp, Plattsburg, N.Y.
To see a larger image, click on it.

This condition made us harmless in the eyes of the Germans. Also, they saw that even if we were awakened from our dreams about peace, it would be a long time before we could be ready to fight. We lacked not only soldiers, but officers as well; also an adequate supply of munitions; indeed, we were without the thousand and one things that Germany had been carefully providing during the last fifty years. No one understood better than she what a mighty

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Figure 22. -- Building "Liberty Ships" on Puget Sound. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 22. -- Building "Liberty Ships" on Puget Sound.
To see a larger image, click on it.

task it would be for us to get ready to fight.

Even if we ever finally prepared ourselves, the field for fighting was at least 3000 miles away, and we lacked the ships for transporting our men and their supplies. More than that, if by some miracle these were provided, the submarine would prevent their arriving on the other side. When all these points are considered, certainly the Germans had much reason for feeling safe from us. 

Our new occupation and its extent

Geography constantly deals with the seven great occupations of men; namely, agriculture, fishing, lumbering, mining, manufacturing, transportation, and trade. Our declaration of war on April 6, 1917, added another, that of carrying on war. This has gradually become the greatest of the eight, and one that to a large degree controls all the others. That is a very remarkable fact, when it is remembered that only a few years ago we commonly believed that we could avoid war. It shows how quickly and completely a great nation can change.

 

Figure 23. -- One view of the steel works at Ensley, just outside of Birmingham, Alabama, where now munitions of war are made. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 23. -- One view of the steel works at Ensley, just outside of 
Birmingham, Alabama, where now munitions of war are made.

Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.

The great extent of this occupation is suggested by a very few facts. In the latter part

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of the summer of 1918 we had over 3,000,000 men in France or in training at home. It has been often stated that it takes seven or eight workers at home to keep one soldier in the field -- so many kinds of work are necessary; such, for example, as farming, mining, manufacture of clothing, munitions, ships, etc., to meet all military needs. If that statement is correct, it would mean that these 3,000,000 are keeping not less than 20,000,000 others fully employed. The center for this great business is our capital, Washington, and prob-

 

Figure 24. -- Military Map of the United States. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 24. -- Military Map of the United States
To see a larger image, click on it.
Key:
Army Training Centers (solid dot)
Forts and other Army establishments (star)
Army Increment Camps (asterisk)
Naval establishments (x)
Air Services Fields and Stations (solid triangle)

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ably many more than 100,000 clerks and other government employees have been called there since the war began. The city has accordingly increased tremendously in population. Other government work connected with the war is carried on in hundreds of places throughout the country.

 

Figure 25. -- Training soldiers at Camp Upton, Yaphank, Long Island, N.Y. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 25. -- Training soldiers at Camp Upton, Yaphank, Long Island, N.Y.
Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.
Our preparation of an army

The conduct of war calls for undertakings of many kinds, each of which may be a great business in itself. One of these was the preparation of an army. Our first step was to call for volunteer soldiers, and within a few months these troops, together with those that we already had, made an army of a million men. Many of these were already well trained for war.

Meanwhile it was clear, however, that several millions would be needed if we took the part in the war that belonged to us; also that it would not do to wait for voluntary enlistments. The President proposed to raise the necessary men by "selective draft " or conscription. By that means the burden of the fighting would be distributed as equally as possible upon different communities. It was a question whether such a plan would be acceptable to the people, and during the debate in Congress signs were not lacking that German influence was at work to defeat the plan.

Yet the bill became a law, and all men between the ages of twenty-one and thirty-one were required to enroll for service on a given date. Ten million young men responded. Since all these were not needed at once, it was decided to determine by lot the order in which the men should be called. The men were also divided into classes according to conditions that deserved consideration in accepting or exempting them. Thus a vast army has been drafted.

The training of so many soldiers was a great problem. Nearly all of them were without military experience, having come directly from farm, factory, and office. They were assigned to camps or cantonments in many parts of the country, as shown in Figure 24.

Each cantonment is really a new city de-

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signed to be the temporary home of about 40,000 men in training. It is equipped with most of the conveniences of any city, having, for example, a water system, sewage system, electric lights, telephone, fire department, and even paved streets. As shown on the map, sixteen of these cantonments were established during the summer of 1917 for the drafted men. Many other cantonments were built for the men who belonged to the National Guard, which had been taken into the service before the conscription act was passed. Thousands upon thousands of engineers, carpenters, plumbers, and other workers, besides vast quantities of lumber and other materials, were necessary for all this construction in so short a time.

 

Figure 26. -- View of an army cantonment on the historic field of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 26. -- View of an army cantonment on the historic field of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.
Development of our navy

Our navy was in far better condition for a great war than our army. In Figure 8 note how it ranked among the navies of the Great Powers.

 

Figure 27. -- A United States Warship using a smoke screen in the "danger zone." To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 27. -- A United States Warship using a smoke screen in the "danger zone."
To see a larger image, click on it.

At the time of our entrance into the war the Allied navies of Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan were masters on the ocean. German warships, merchant vessels, and raiders had been driven from it. But the German submarine, which had done much damage since the beginning of the war, had been declared by the German government on January 31, 1917, to be free from all restrictions, and it was proving fearfully destructive to Allied vessels. At that time the Germans generally relied upon it to bring victory.

It was our task, therefore, to construct more war vessels, as many as we possibly could; and to increase very greatly

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the number of naval officers and men. This task, like that of preparing a vast army, has been accomplished with remarkable success.

 

Figure 28. -- A sham battle at Pelham Bay Naval Training camp, Pelham Bay, N.Y. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 28. -- A sham battle at Pelham Bay Naval Training camp, Pelham Bay, N.Y.
Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.
Building of army transports and a merchant marine

The purpose of the navy is to destroy the enemy submarines and to afford protection in other ways. In addition to war vessels it was seen that we would need a vast number of other ships for transportation of all sorts of things to Europe. Several million soldiers would need to be taken over; food for them would have to be supplied by us, too; also clothing, ammunition, horses, engines, and hundreds of other articles. In addition great quantities of food would need to be sent to our Allies, since they could not meet all their own wants. Thousands of vessels would be required for these purposes; and, since many ships were being sunk every week by submarines, a still greater number would have to be built in order to meet this loss.

 

Figure 29. -- Launching a steel "Liberty Ship," shipbuilding yards in Mobile, Alabama. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 29. -- Launching a steel "Liberty Ship," shipbuilding yards in Mobile, Alabama.
To see a larger image, click on it.

Such vessels as these, used for transportation of goods in time of peace, are called "merchant marine." At the time war was declared by us our merchant marine on the ocean was small. While we had had a great foreign trade, nine tenths of our imports and exports had been carried in ships owned by foreign countries. That was not all. We lacked the equipment, such as the shipyards, machinery, and trained workmen, necessary for building a great number of ships. Also,

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ships like great buildings can be built only very slowly.

There were many difficulties to be overcome here; and our progress at first was very slow. We could not hope to accomplish much during 1917; it took time to get the work started. In the spring of 1918, however, results began to appear; dozens of vessels per month began to be launched, and then as many per week. In one day, July 4, almost one hundred were launched. The number continues to increase at an astonishing rate, and now the new vessels built by our Allies and ourselves each month far exceed those destroyed. By our astonishing energy the point of safety has been reached in shipbuilding.

Manufacture of munitions and equipment

Upon the declaration of war our government at once began preparations for the extensive manufacture of munitions and other articles necessary in war. Rifles, machine guns, cannon, and powder had to be provided in enormous quantities. For this purpose manufacturing centers have been developed that are cities in themselves, given up wholly to this one kind of work. Airplanes, motor-trucks, armored cars, and transport wagons have had to be produced in vast numbers. Millions of shoes, blankets, uniforms, and hats have had to be made. To meet all such requirements hundreds of factories have abandoned their regular work and have undertaken some of these things. Thus one sees how great a business war may be; it can demand a large share of the efforts of the nation.

 

Figure 30. -- A giant American-built airplane, used for bombing purposes. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 30. -- A giant American-built airplane, used for bombing purposes.
Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.
Transportation of troops

High officials in Germany had promised their people that even if the United States raised a great army and secured vessels for its transportation, it would never be allowed to reach France. There was much doubt among us, too, about the success we should attain in transporting large numbers of men. The first troops were sent over in May, 1917. The number that followed from month to month was watched by us and our Allies -- and probably by the Germans also -- with great anxiety. There were transported in:

 

Troops sent over to fight in World War One:
May, 1917 1,718 January, 1918 46,776
June 12,261 February 48,027
July 12,988 March 83,811
August 18,323 April 117,212
September 32,523 May 244,345
October 38,259 June 276,372
November 23,016 July over 300,000
December 48,840 August 250,000

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Many of the Germans have found it difficult to believe these figures; and even to us they are wonderful. Transportation of people on any such scale upon the ocean has never before been accomplished.

It should be remembered, too, that danger in the form of submarines lurked about the transporting vessels at every moment. Yet practically not a man has been lost on the way to Europe. By the aid of our allied navies and our own the vessels have been protected on all sides. The courage and endurance of the men in these navies will be admired in all time to come.

 

Figure 31. -- American troops disembarking at a port in France. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 31. -- American troops disembarking at a port in France.
Copyright © Kadel and Herbert
To see a larger image, click on it.

In order to provide space on shipboard for so many soldiers, especially in the recent months, the partitions of some of the vessels were removed and all possible space suited for bunks was utilized. The soldiers slept in shifts, each of three shifts occupying the bunks eight hours. It is plain that the beds were kept very busy.

Upon declaration of war German vessels in American ports were seized and have been used in transport service. The largest transport of all is the Leviathan, formerly called the Vaterland, which sailed between Hamburg and New York.

Our provision of food for our Allies

Provision of food for our Allies, particularly the English and French, is another undertaking that has called for much planning and labor on our part . The British are a manufacturing nation, relying upon imports from other countries for much of their food. Before the war the want of such imports for even a few weeks would have caused much suffering.

Since the war began, large areas that were formerly wooded and were parts of large estates and parks have been brought under cultivation. With this improvement it is said that the British can supply enough food to last them at least eight months in the year. To supply the other third from abroad, however, is no small task.

Before the war France was less dependent on imports for food, although she required a good deal. The war, however, has devastated a part of the land; and, partly because so many of the men were engaged in fighting and partly because the soil has lacked fertili-

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zation, her crops have been unusually small. In November, 1917, the United States Food Administration stated that the 1917 wheat crop of France, as compared with that of 1913, was short over one half or 176,000,000 bushels; that the potato crop was short about one third or 165,000,000 bushels; that the sugar-beet crop was short over two thirds or 148,000,000 bushels; that the number of cattle had decreased about one sixth or 2,435,000 head; that the number of sheep had decreased over one third or 5,535,000 head; and that the number of hogs had decreased two fifths or 2,825,000 head. Both the British and the French had to receive great quantities of food from abroad or give up fighting.

 

Figure 32. -- Women at Washington, D.C., learning to run a tractor in order to do farm work. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 32. -- Women at Washington, D.C., learning to run a tractor in order to do farm work.
To see a larger image, click on it.

Heretofore these imports came largely from Canada, Australia, Argentina, and other agricultural countries. But ships were lacking for transportation of wheat all the way from Australia, and for several reasons many of these other countries have not been able to supply as much as usual. Thus it was that the United States was left to furnish it.

Our country as well as England ranks high in manufacturing; in fact the United States is the greatest manufacturing nation. Yet we produce most of our food and have always exported some. Now it became necessary for us to export far more. Wheat and meat were the things most needed; and under Mr. Hoover's lead we set to work to secure enough to save our Allies.

This need furnished an opportunity for every one to be patriotic by doing his bit, particularly by helping to produce more of various kinds of food and to consume less of those that were needed abroad.

The success of our efforts is as gratifying in this case as in the others already mentioned. Our average monthly export of beef before the war was 1,066,000 pounds; and of pork 41,531,000 hounds. In June,1918, we sent abroad 92,173,000 pounds of beef and 169,331,000 pounds of pork. Our export of wheat has likewise been tremendously increased. These are facts that have convinced our Allies -- and the Germans, too -- that we can be depended upon.

Care of the wounded 

Care of the wounded is another phase of war that has called for much planning and a great number of workers. In ancient wars little provision was made for those who were injured. They died from lack of care if their wounds were serious. Now, unless a wound is very serious, the man is expected to recover and to return to the ranks. It is a matter of economy as well as humanity to attend to him.

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The soldier is not only cared for when he is wounded, but is kept in health if possible. It is the business of doctors to be on the lookout for contagious diseases, to inspect drinking water, to watch over food, and to see that camps are in a sanitary condition.

The Red Cross Society is organized under supervision of the government to do much of this work. It has many doctors and trained nurses. Under them are assistants who bring the wounded to hospitals for treatment. They help the men with their mail and aid them in communicating with parents and friends. In the regions ruined by war the Society helps to look after homeless people. It finds temporary shelter for widows and orphans and feeds refugees until they can care for themselves.

 

Figure 33. -- Filing pledges to save food at the office of the Food Conservation Commission, New York. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 33. -- Filing pledges to save food at the office of the Food 
Conservation Commission, New York.

Copyright © Underwood and Underwood
To see a larger image, click on it.
Provision for the comfort and entertainment of soldiers

Wars are now fought by citizen soldiers. If possible, they should come back home at the end of the war better than when went they left. 

Their leisure time, therefore, should be properly spent, and they should have such comforts and entertainments as will keep them healthy minded and happy. A great force of workers is employed to assist the soldier in these respects. They lead in many kinds of games, they organize schools, exhibit motion pictures, furnish music and reading matter, and establish stores where needed articles can be bought at reasonable prices. The fighting power of men is much affected by such care, as well as their health and morals. Such organizations as the Young Men's Christian Association, the Knights of Columbus, the Salvation Army, and Jewish societies have assumed responsibility for this work.


10
. The War in 1918

On the western front

In the west the Germans aimed at the Channel ports, especially Calais, and at Paris. Their plan was to break through the line of defense at once, or by one drive after another to bend it until it would have to give way. The drives began in March, and one after another was made

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with tremendous force. The Allies had to yield extensive areas, until, on July 15, the line stood as shown in Figure 34 (below).

 

Figure 34. -- Western Battle Front - July 15, 1918. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 34. -- Western Battle Front - July 15, 1918
To see a larger image, click on it.
Key:

Battle Line, July 15, 1918 is represented by a solid line

 

On July 15 another terrific drive began which allowed the Germans to cross the Marne. The French suffered heavy losses; but the American Army was in the line and helped to meet the shock. Our men fought like veterans and helped drive the invaders back across the Marne. Then the Allies undertook an offensive of their own and forced the Teutons to retreat further until Paris was made safe from attack. This second battle of the Marne seems likely to be remembered as the turning point in the war. Though the French forces were of course far larger than ours, General Pershing had possibly 300,000 men in this battle, and 1,000,000 more in other parts of the line or in reserve. The great energy and skill that our country had shown during more than one year in creating an army, building ships, and transporting men had now, begun to count. Other attacks made by the Allies soon after brought further disaster to the Teutons.

 

Figure 35. -- American troops on their way to the trenches on the British front. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 35. -- American troops on their way to the trenches on the British front.
British Official Photograph
To see a larger image, click on it.
On the Italian front

On the Italian front, also, the tide was turned in favor of the Allies.

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Figure 36. -- Map of the World Showing Nations at War. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 36. -- Map of the World Showing Nations at War - August 1, 1918
To see a larger image, click on it.
Key:
The Allied Powers and their Colonies (Diagonal hashed)
The Central Powers and their Colonies (Solid Black)
The situation in Russia is uncertain (dotted)

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A great Austrian drive had been planned to crush Italy, while the British and French were kept too busy to give aid. This took place in May. At first success appeared to be with the Teutons. Then the Italians rallied, defeated them, and drove them back. The Austrian leaders had promised their army food and supplies in abundance in the conquered territory of fertile northern Italy. Money was even issued to them in advance to be spent in Venice. But there was no opportunity to use it. Instead the army marched in great haste in the opposite direction, leaving behind them thousands of dead and of prisoners and vast quantities of war material.

Events in Russia

The state of affairs in Russia continued to worry the Allied nations, for the Germans were obtaining a firmer and firmer hold upon the country. Many persons urged armed intervention by the Allies. They believed that a large part of the population, especially in Siberia, was hostile to Germany and would welcome an Allied army sent for their protection. It could best be sent, they thought, by way of Vladivostok (Fig. 455, main text) and might well be accompanied by experts who should help in reorganizing the government, industry, and education. Such a plan might finally, also, restore the battle line in Russia and thus compel Germany to withdraw soldiers from the west in order to oppose it.

 

Figure 37. -- French children greeting American soldiers on their way to the front in France. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 37. -- French children greeting American soldiers on their way to the front in France.
Copyright © Committee on Public Information
To see a larger image, click on it.

There was one important objection to such a move. To many of the Russians it might seem a plan for the conquest of their country by the Allies, and thus drive them into open sympathy with Germany. At the present time it appears that this objection has been overcome and that both military and civil aid, as just indicated, will be sent to Russia in increasing quantity in the near future.

In August Allied forces were landed on the Murman coast and occupied Archangel on the White Sea (Fig. 358, main text), others were landed in Vladivostok. These forces cooperated with forces of friendly Russians and former subjects of Austria-Hungary who had been prisoners in Russia but now asserted their independence. The most important of these forces were the Czecho-Slovaks who had come from Bohemia and other subject states of Austria-Hungary.

American participation in the war on a still vaster scale was assured when in August the limits of the draft age were lowered from twenty-one to eighteen and raised from thirty-one to forty-five, thus making available several million more soldiers for the next year's campaign.

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11
. Cost of the War

Values that cannot be estimated

There is no accurate way of estimating a great many of the costs of war. For example it is difficult to assign a definite cost to the loss of a life, to a wound that partly or wholly disables a man for work; to loss of health owing to exposure; to the pain endured by a wounded man even though the wound finally heals; to the life-long sorrow and loneliness due to death of loved ones; to the neglect in education and other care that children suffer when they have been made orphans; to the anguish caused by the separation and partial destruction of families living in the region of fighting. All such things are to be counted among the costs of war; indeed, they are the main costs because they show what a fearful thing war is, and should always be kept in mind when the glories of war are mentioned. Yet there is no way of estimating their worth.

Expenses of the war

A few of the very many kinds of work required for the conduct of war, have been briefly described. Each of these calls for vast sums of money. For example, the pay of a private soldier is thirty dollars per month, with an extra allowance of three dollars per month for foreign service. Three million soldiers therefore would cost the nation close to one hundred million dollars per month. Clothing is an additional item, costing much more during war than in time of peace. It is estimated that during peace times each soldier, fully equipped, costs our government fifteen hundred dollars a year. A single great cannon costs many thousands of dollars, and a single shot from it at least several hundreds. The numbers of men engaged in this war far exceed those in any previous war, and the expenses reach fabulous sums.

In order to raise the money the governments have not only levied unusually high taxes but have also borrowed extensively.

Indebtedness of the leading nations at war

Each nation had debts before the war began; but they have all been tremendously increased since that date. The total debt of each country according to the latest estimates of the Department of Commerce of the United States was as follows:

 

Figure 38. -- Percentage of Debt and Comparison of National Wealth and Debt
To see a larger image, click on it.
Key: Percentage of Debt, top chart:

Horizontal axis, x-axis: Percentage of Debt (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%)
Vertical axis, y-axis:
United States (5.9%)
Great Britain (44.3%)
France (40.7%)
Italy (25%)
Germany (35.3%)
Austria-Hungary (36.3%)

Figure 38. -- Percentage of Debt and Comparison of National Wealth and Debt. To see a larger image, click on it.

Figure 38. -- Percentage of Debt and Comparison of National Wealth and Debt
To see a larger image, click on it.
Key: Comparison of National Wealth and Debt, bottom chart:

Horizontal axis, x-axis: Comparison of National Wealth and Debt
Vertical axis, y-axis:
United States $220,000,000000 / $13,000,000,000
Great Britain $88,000,000000 / $39,000,000,000
France $59,000,000000 / $24,000,000,000
Italy $20,000,000000 / $5,000,000,000
Germany $83,000,000000 / $30,000,000,000
Austria-Hungary $55,000,000000 / $20,000,000,000

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It is possible to estimate the worth of all the property owned by each nation and thus find its total wealth. Then by comparing the debt of each with this total wealth its per cent of indebtedness can be shown.

The security of United States loans

Note this per cent in the table. Observe that the wealth of the United States far exceeds that of any one of the other countries. In fact, it is as great as that of several of them added together. Observe, also, that our per cent of indebtedness is smaller than that of any one of the other Powers. This means that the loans we make to our Government are far safer than those made to any one of these other Powers. In other words, our investments in United States bonds and war savings stamps are the safest investments in the wide world. That is something to make us proud, and also to make us eager to make more loans to Uncle Sam.

States of Germany

NAME

AREA SQ. MI. 

POPULAT1910ION

NAME

AREA SQ. MI.

Population 1910 ON

Kingdoms ----

 

 

Principalities ----

 

 

Prussia . . . . . .

134,616

40,165,219

Schwarzburg-Sonders-

 

 

Bavaria . . . . .

29,292

6,887,291

hausen . . . . .

333

89,917

Saxony . . . . . .

5,789

4,806,661

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

363

100,702

Wurttemberg . . . .

7,534

2,437,574

Waldeck . . . . .

433

61,707

Grand-Duchies ----

 

 

Reuss-Greiz . . . .

122

72,769

Baden . . . . . .

5,823

2,142,833

Reuss-Schleiz . . .

319

152,752

Hesse . . . . . .

2,966

1,282,051

Schaumburg-Lippe . .

131

46,652

Mecklenburg-Schwerin .

5,068

639,958

Lippe . . . . . .

469

150,937

Saxe-Weimar . . . .

1,397

417,149

Free Towns ----

 

 

Mecklenburg-Strelitz

1,131

106,442

Lubeck . . . . .

115

116,559

Oldenburg . . . . .

2,482

483,042

Bremen . . . . .

99

299,526

Duchies ----

 

 

Hamburg . . . .

160

1,014,664

Brunswick . . . . .

1,418

494,339

Imperial Territory ----

 

 

Saxe-Meiningen . . .

953

278,762

Alsace-Lorraine . . .

5,604

1,874,014

Saxe-Altenburg . . .

511

216,128 

German Empire . .

208,780

64,925,993

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha . .

764

257,177

 

 

 

Anhalt . . . . . .

888

331,128

 

 

 

 

Colonies formerly in possession of Germany

NAME

AREA SQ. MI.

(Estimated)

POPULATION

(Estimated)

NAME

AREA SQ. MI.

(Estimated)

POPULATION

(Estimated)

In Africa:

 

 

Caroline, Pelew, and

 

 

Togoland . . . . . 

33,700

1,000,000

Marianne Islands .

800

41,600

Kamerun . . . . . 

190,000

3,500,000

Solomon Islands . . .

4,200

45,000

S. W. Africa . . . . 

322,450

200,000

Marshall Islands . .

160

15,000

East Africa . . . . 

364,000

7,000,000

Samoan Islands . . .

985

33,000

In the Pacific:

 

 

In Asia -- 

 

 

German New Guinea

70,000

110,000

Kiauchau . . . .

117

60,000

Bismarck Archipelago .

20,000

188,000

Total dependencies . 

1,600,412

12,192,600

or see this actual chart below from Page 39:

Charts on Page 39. -- Charts: States of Germany and Colonies formerly in possession of Germany. To see a larger image, click on it.
Charts on Page 39. -- Charts: States of Germany and Colonies formerly in possession of Germany
To see a larger image, click on it.

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DECLARATION OF WAR


ALLIED POWERS

 Nation  Declaration of War Against 1914 1915 1916 1917
France Germany Aug.  3      
     "  Austria Aug. 13      
     Turkey Nov.  5      
     "  Bulgaria   Oct. 16    
Great Britain  Germany Aug.  4      
     "       " Austria Aug. 13      
     "       " Turkey Nov.  5      
     "       " Bulgaria   Oct. 16    
Serbia Germany Aug.  9      
     " Turkey Dec.  2      
     " Bulgaria   Oct. 19    
Montenegro Austria Aug.  8      
          " Germany Aug.  9      
Japan Germany Aug. 23      
Russia Turkey Nov.  3      
     " Bulgaria   Oct. 19    
Portugal Germany Nov. 23      
Italy Austria   May  24    
   " Turkey   Aug. 21    
   " Bulgaria   Oct. 19    
   " Germany     Aug. 28  
San Marino Austria   May  24    
Roumania Austria     Aug. 27  
Greece Germany     Nov. 28 1 July  2
       " Bulgaria       July  2
United States Germany       Apr.  6
     "        " Austria       Dec.  7
Cuba Germany       Apr.  7
Panama Germany       Apr.  7
       " Austria       Dec. 10
China Germany       Aug. 14
      " Austria       Aug. 14
Brazil Germany       Oct. 26
Siam Germany       July 22
     " Austria       July 22
Liberia Germany       Aug.  4


CENTRAL POWERS

 Nation  Declaration of War Against 1914 1915 1916 1917
Germany Russia Aug.  1      
        " France Aug.  3      
        " Belgium Aug.  4      
        " Portugal     Mar.  9  
        " Roumania     Sept. 14  
Austria Serbia July 28      
       " Russia Aug.  6      
       " Montenegro Aug.  9      
       " Japan Aug. 27      
       " Belgium Aug. 28      
Turkey Allies Nov. 23      
       " Roumania     Aug. 29  
Bulgaria Serbia   Oct. 14    


NATIONS THAT HAVE SEVERED RELATIONS WITH GERMANY

 Nation  1914 1915 1916 1917
Bolivia       Apr. 14
Guatemala       Apr. 27
Honduras       May 17
Nicaragua       May 18
Haiti       June 17
Costa Rica       Sept. 21
Peru       Oct.  6
Uruguay       Oct.  7
Footnote 1 Declaration of war by the provisional government of Greece.

or see this actual chart below from Page 40:

Chart on Page 40. -- Declaration of War: Allied Powers, Central Powers, and Nations that have severed relations with Germany. To see a larger image, click on it.

Chart on Page 40. -- Declaration of War: Allied Powers, Central Powers, and 
Nations that have severed relations with Germany.
To see a larger image, click on it.

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